1. Divergent Evolution
This essentially results in genetic and phenotypic divergence in populations (see examples above)
2. Convergent evolution
Convergent structures in the ocotillo (left) from the American Southwest, and in the allauidia (right) from Madagascar.
Convergence in bill and body shape in birds from four different continents.
Adaptations to similar environments led to striking phenotypic similarities in these very distantly related desert plants. Left, organ pipe cactus from the Sonoran Desert, right,
3. Parallel evolution
Long-term Evolutionary Processes