Fig. 10.2-8. Transverse section of stem of rush (Juncus). The stems of rushes are persistent, not ephemeral, and have a thick layer of fibers just below the epidermis. It would be possible to have a parenchymatous epidermis above a mass of fibers, but in this species, the epidermis cells also convert to sclerenchyma cells. Both the lignin and the cutin have stained a uniform red here, so it is not possible to see if the cuticle is thick. Of course, guard cells must not sclerify if they are to remain responsive.