Fig. 10.2-1. Transverse section of stem epidermis of cosmos (Cosmos). This is a rather ordinary epidermis, a type you might see on many species. The cells are box-shaped (neither columnar nor really flat), their walls are thin (these are parenchyma cells) and the cuticle is a layer thick enough to be seen easily but is not exceptionally thick. The cuticle is rough in a few places: perhaps if viewed by SEM, the roughness would form a pattern, but in transverse section like this, it merely appears irregular. These epidermal cells have protoplasm (most epidermis cells remain alive after completing their morphogenesis).

            The cells below the epidermis are collenchyma.